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Friday, December 19, 2014

The Study of Rivers

Although the water in rivers account for only 0.0001% of the total water in the world, they are, nevertheless, of immense importance. Rivers have a geological, biological, historical and cultural significance that cannot be underrated.

Rivers play a vital role in the hydrological system of evaporation and precipitation. They drain rain water from the land. Nearly 75% of the world's surface water is drained to the sea by rivers. Rivers provide habitat, nourishment and transport for many organisms. Rivers like the Colorado River carve up the landscape and play a major role in creating the topography of an area.

For humans rivers have provided natural paths to explore, and a means of transport. Moreover, the sediment carried from rivers supply humans with vital materials. Ever since the water mill, rivers have been supplying energy. Hydroelectric power is increasing in importance as concerns over fossil fuel shortages and carbon emissions have increased.

Culturally rivers have had a major impact. The earliest human settlements were along rivers because they provided a close fresh water supply, as well as a source of food and building materials (sand and gravel). Man's ability to divert river resources to irrigate land for agriculture was a landmark in creating human civilizations, and the failure of these irrigation systems has sometimes been attributed to the demise of past civilizations.

Rivers such as the Amazon, the Nile and the Yellow River have massive cultural resonances. The Chinese say that 'he who can conquer the Yellow River can conquer China'. Hence the world's biggest damn across the Yangtze. Livingstone the explorer is famous for looking for the source of the Nile. The Congo River became famous because of Joseph Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness'. The book uses a powerful metaphor that compares the stripping away of the veneer of human civilization with a journey up a river.

St Lawrence Institute of Environmental Sciences originally set up to publish scientific studies on the St Lawrence River ecosystem that is located in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada. Scientists used the facilities provided by the institute to measure various aspects of the river to determine the health of the river and the possible impact of human activity on the river ecosystem.

It was found that the ecotoxicology of the river was of particular concern. Mercury uptake in native mussels (Elliptio complanata), invertebrates, and fish (yellow perch) showed mercury was accumulating up the species food chain and reaching levels that were dangerous to human health as well as the health of the river ecosystem.

An unexpected corollary of this research showed high levels of mercury take up by local bat populations.

Another area of research done by the River Institute was to study the concentration levels of mosquito larvae along the river and to correlate these levels to incidences of West Nile virus in Canada. This has been a major concern for inhabitants of Canada since the disease first appeared in 2003.

St Lawrence Institute of Environmental Sciences continues to collect data on the St Lawrence River to study the possible impact of global warming on river ecology. Rivers will play a major role in the future with the predicted rise in temperature. The oxygen levels of a river are vital to the health of a river. The healthier a river is the more aquatic algae and plants it will have that will be able to use photosynthesis to combat the build-up of carbon in the atmosphere and turn it into valuable oxygen for water and land bound life.

Another concern is that rivers make up a vital part of mammal water supplies. As human numbers increase the need to carefully manage river resources and protect them from pollution will be of the utmost importance to secure the quality of life for future generations.

The same is true of animals that come to rivers to rehydrate. In Africa animals will travel hundreds of miles to get to water sources during the dry season. If those water sources dry up or become toxic the animals will quickly perish. The animals will also be compelled in their desperation to enter human settlements to find water.

If the science behind climate change is correct (and the UN believes it is) then it is to the study of water sources such as rivers that we should focus some of our scientific resources. Through scientific research it is hoped that we will be in a better position to know how to conserve not only the St Lawrence River but all rivers. By conserving rivers, we increase our chances of survival in the future.

Jewelry Trade in Eastern Africa

Trade is always bustling in Eastern Africa. However, many people don’t know that they have become a large market for christian jewelry. They have created amazing pieces that can help supplement the income of the local region. In this article we will talk a little more about how they have done this and what the future is.

Recently Google announced their new Android phone that will cost under $200. These phones are going to dramatically change the way business is done across the globe. For example the small African tribe that created jewelry before will now finally have access to online market places. This will allow them to begin selling their jewely online and open up a whole new trade market. If it weren’t for the changing technology in the World this may not have ever happened. While Google’s latest technology is just one piece of the pie internet access is constantly growing every year.

My hypothesis is that over the next few years we will see some pretty dramatic changes. With the growing dominance of Alibaba I could see them expanding into these smaller markets and making jewelry sales accessible to anyone. This will forever change the markets in Eastern Africa and allow the area to flourish. 

Boost to Wildlife on Elwha River

The last remaining portion of Glines Canyon Dam was destroyed last week, and there is already positive news of wildlife returning to the Olympic National Park.

The demise of the dam means the return of the Elwha River which was the cornerstone of the local ecosystem.  The river was once almost legendary for it’s salmon runs especially the King Salmon before the construction of the dam blocked the river.


The Elwha Dam was completed in 1913 and is situated just West of Port Angeles – it was removed in March 2012.  The larger Glines Canyon Dam was completed in 1927 and finally bit the dust last Tuesday.  The problem was that both dams were built without fish ladders which meant that the salmon couldn’t access the majority of the river – 65 out of the 70 miles.   It was believed that there were over 400,000 salmon once lived there, the figure reduced to a few thousand who were restricted to the lower tributaries.

The dams also caused other issues not least the increase in coastal erosion and the build up of sediment behind them.

The destruction of these two dams means that for the first time in almost 90 years the river was allowed to return to it’s original river bed in Glines Canyon.

Although the initial signs have been encouraging, experts suggest that it will take many decades for a complete restoration, however the removal of the dams is the crucial first step.  There have been some wonderfully encouraging reports and news broadcasts of how the area is being revitalized on local media online – although you’ll need a method like this, to access the broadcasts from outside the USA.

There are already new banks appearing, walkers have reported red alder and cottonwood saplings springing up.  You can see the sediment now being used by the water flow to create new islands, and also river channels and small sandy beaches are appearing too.

The salmon have wasted no time either with the Pacific Northwest Salmon already starting to populate the upstream levels.  These are areas where there has been virtually no marine life for abut 100 years, it is an exciting time.

Henry McSallinger


Water Pollution in Alabama

For one of the most beautiful states in America, it’s nothing less than an national scandal.  A new report published by the respected environmental group – Environment America Research and Policy has found that Alabama has some of the worse pollution levels in the country.

They estimate that over 12 million points of toxic chemicals were pumped into Alabama rivers and waterways in a single year (2012). On it’s league table of American polluters, Alabama sits fourth from bottom.  Singled out as the main contributor was the Thyssen Krupp Stainless USA, the German based steel maker who operates in Alabama.   This company alone dumped nearly 2 million pounds of poisonous chemicals into the rivers of Alabama.


There is clearly a problem with here with either the will of the state to ensure businesses operate in an environmentally friendly manner or the legislative powers are insufficient.  These are very real threats to both the environment of Alabama and the health of it’s residents.

The health problems that can be caused by coming into contact with these poisons are well documented.   For example much of these toxins are known to carcinogenic – chemicals like arsenic, benzene and chromium.  There are many other health issues, such as development disorders, fertility problems and a  host of other serious illnesses which can be caused by these chemicals.

These rivers, have been the life blood of the country. They have supported life for thousands of years and now we let a companies like this  German industrial company pour poison into them with impunity.  A behavior that would certainly not be allowed if the rivers in question were in Germany.  But it is wrong to single out one company, the pollution allowed in the rivers of the USA is criminal and we will be facing yet more environmental disasters if this is not stopped now.

Toxic pollution that is poured into rivers has a huge far reaching effect, it can pollute the water table, poison humans and wildlife and cause huge problems for agriculture in those areas too.  There is legislation to protect the rivers of the USA,  it’s called the Clean Water Act.  The report suggests that it is rarely adequately enforced, for a variety of reasons.

One of the main problems is that the act must be enforced at a State level where there has been a reluctance to tighten restrictions on big industrial companies.   These companies have powerful allies and provide large levels of both taxation and employment to States.  This situation has meant that much of the illegal pollution in places like Alabama goes unpunished – there are hefty fines that should be levied against polluters which are often not being applied.

James Hamilton is a writer and blogger on subjects related to the environment and technology, sometime both at the same time.  He is an anglophile living in the Boston area and you can find samples of his work here – this video about how to watch uk tv abroad.

A Part of the UK’s Renewable Energy Plan

Energy Secretary Ed Davey has declared the UK plans to introduce an advanced new water-source heat pump to homes through the state following the pump’s successful introduction in south London as a way of supplying hot water to hotel rooms and residence homes.  It has been reported in all major media sources, but not as yet a mainstream headline article even from the BBC.

The new Ecodan pump was deployed at Kingston Heights in south London’s Richmond Park at a price of around 2.5 million pounds.

Once the water is filtered twice and channeled through a pump, heat exchangers take out the warmth and transfer it into a string of condensers that function as a sort of inverse fridge, increasing the temperature of the tepid water to over 45 degrees Celsius for use in radiators or toilets.


The Ecodan pump needs a small quantity of electricity to work, yet still qualifies as a type clean renewable energy because it is a zero carbon system. The technology can theoretically use using any body of water that is found in the open and exposed to the light of sunlight.

Kingston’s Ecodan pump will commence operation by the end of the month, supplying a 140-room resort in the region including hot water to almost 150 residences. The system is anticipated to realize economies on utilities statements of just as much as 20 per cent and could cut yearly carbon emissions by almost 500 tons.

Davey has entrusted the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) with the job of drafting a national map revealing where the heat pumps have the possibility to be deployed, with the aim of finally installing a total of 4.5 million of the apparatus throughout the state.

Source: James Greenhoff


Fears That Moira River is Starting to Flood

Quinte Conservation warned Monday that water amounts in some communities on the Moira River in eastern Ontario will continue to increase.
“Water amounts in the hardest hit regions of Foxboro and Corbyville in the Town of Belleville and the neighbourhood of Stoco Lake in the Municipality of Tweed are anticipated to increase somewhat and remain high for a week,” said Quinte Conservation, the Ontario conservation authority whose region of responsibility comprises the drainage basins of the Moira, Napanee and Salmon rivers.

“Occupiers along the Moira, Salmon and Napanee Rivers can anticipate water levels to stay the same or increase somewhat over the following week,” Quinte Conservation said Monday.

The bureau included that water ranges in the region of Stoco Lake — near Tweed, about 40 kilometres north of Belleville — are additionally anticipated to increase.

“Predictions are calling for up to 30 millimetres of rain and possible thunderstorms in our area over another two days and also this means water amounts will continue to increase marginally,” Quinte Conservation water assets supervisor Bryon Keene said in a launch.

Keene included that on Sunday evening, 50 millimetres of rain was measured at a bore on the Moira River at Freeway 7.  For more information, please contact your local government agencies, and take not of local broadcasts on radio and TV.  If you are travelling and can’t access these stations, you can connect by using a Canadian proxy server it’s quite simple to do.

Conservation of Electric Bills Using Solar Energy

There are lots of people that are taking the advantage of solar energy around the world. Others did not get this because they think that it is something difficult and confusing to implement. Script language can help reduce your electric bills. This article has several pieces of advice to help you understand the benefits of Script language and solar energy to conserve electric bills. Do you wonder on how you are able to reduce your carbon footprint on the earth with the aid of solar energy? By switching to solar energy, you can conserve electric bills and make a big impact. There are small ways that you can do this. This means that solar energy is renewable and this is also healthy for the environment. It is also god for your wallet. Think about the money you are paying to the power companies every month. How would you desire to have and keep that money in your pocket? Altering to solar power will do that in your favor. Right after you pay off the first investment, the money you utilized to pay to the power company will now be in our wallet.

Script language will help you conserve your electric bills. Solar energy will never run out and this is one of its greatest benefits. Short of the sun rays, it will be there always to provide us power. Solar energy is a consistent power source. Solar energy is not like any other energy source as it will be there until the days end. You can look to the warranties of the solar panels you consider. For 20 years more, a quality solar panel must have a warranty. You can move in a different direction if you don’t get that with the panels you consider. It might costs a little more, but it will be worth it for peace of mind. One you lease solar panels, you must check the contract for the possibility of lease transferring. Once you sell your building and home that panels are installed within the lease time. Legally, you can transfer the lease to the new owners of the house or building.

Script language is another ideal way when it comes to solar energy. You don’t need to stick the solar panels in the particular locations you see in the leaflets. It is needed to have a small that approximates to 1’’ behind the panel in order to have regular air circulation. You are able to find interesting positions in any area on your property that works with the design and style of the surrounding area. Installing a solar-powered path lights is another one easy way on saving your money on electric bills. You can add an interesting feature on front or back lawn like the solar-powered path lights. These lights utilized energy from the rays of the sun to remain powered during night time. Now you are equipped with lots of ways on how to conserve energy and electric bills. You can now save your money with the aid of Script language.



Saving The Earth From Global Warming

We all dream to live a healthy environment. We want to live healthily and safely without having any problem. However, it is obvious that we have a risky environment these days. With the civilization today, our world keeps on boosting and the environment is also getting into its danger. Videoovervågning further explained how global warming affects the lives of everybody. In 20th century, global warming is not a phenomenon. In fact, it has been occurred in the past many times from periods of extensive cold known as ice ages. With many information with regards on global warming, it is sometimes difficult to detect which written and reports were fact and which is simply a part of scientific alarm strategies. There are several facts with regards on global warming that might help you a lot. Firstly, you need to understand and know first what exactly global warming means. Global warming defined as the basic increase in the Earth’s temperature, oceans and land masses. This means that the increase temperature of the Earth would surely affect the lives of the inhabitants. People are not the only affected on global warming but also the living things such as the plants and animals.

Videoovervågning explains how it reacts on how to deal on global warming. There are many projects these days that are promulgated by many organizations in order to avoid this global warming. From the last hundred years, the Earth’s surface temperature is at average of 59F, as it has risen to 1F. With the year 2100, the temperature average of the Earth ranges from 2.5F to about 10F. It is enough to melt the polar ice caps and glaciers. The cause of global warming is actually alarming with many environment issues we are facing now. Global warming will and has always happen naturally. Global warming becomes a so much concern to the lives of the people due to the fact that activities made by humans and practices have significantly contributed to its severity and occurrence. Videoovervågning is another good idea when dealing with global warming. 

With the advent of careless environmental practices and industrialization, these were caused the rise in the average temperature of the Earth through subsidizing negatively to the greenhouse effect. Global warming began when the industrial revolution was born way back 240 years ago. The gases from industrial operations began to release into the atmosphere. More and more fuels were burned and mined. Recently, 75% as estimated of the increase in the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere in the Earth caused on the burning of the fossil fuels. Videoovervågning can contribute a lot of good things when it comes on global warming.  Since our atmosphere has increased on the average of temperature, it affects the live of inhabitants which is not good. Videoovervågning explained about global warming that causes greenhouse effect. This greenhouse effect becomes a big problem as it relates on the changes of the Earth’s temperature. Greenhouse effect and global warming are actually not the same issues in the Earth.




West Virginian Chemical Spill Controversy

For many environmentalists it’s a constant source of frustration, the simple problem that despite their protests and lobbying it usually takes a serious environmental incident before any serious debate takes place.   In West Virginia, such an incident has just happened where the Elk River was seriously polluted from a chemical plant accident.

The company is owned by Freedom Industries and in retrospect it seemed almost a matter of time before such a disaster happened.   A huge row of very, old storage tanks full of chemicals was responsible say let that a mile up river from where the West Virginian Water company extracts water for the public water supply.  The result has seen 300,000 people being denied access to drinking water and who knows what sort of environmental damage caused to the river and it’s surroundings.

Why is this allowed to happen, of course accidents are not always forseeable but this just looked so obvious. Is it a problem of lack of regulation?  Is the regulation there, yet simply not enforced properly.

The US of course, is not somewhere which welcomes red tape and regulation but even the business people need to drink clean, safe water so the debate is shifting.  Perhaps some areas just need strong regulation, because they are that important and very simply because people’s health could be at risk.   Environmental pollution and hazards can easily damage wildlife and kill people.

Politicians including those in West Virginia generally pore scorn on new legislation especially where it impacts profits, jobs and business.   Indeed many people feel there is enough legislation in place the problems are that they’re ‘not fit for purpose’ and worse are so complicated are often not enforced effectively.


In an economic downturn, naturally the focus tends to be on supporting enterprise and wealth creation. But to do so at a cost to the environment can be a huge mistake.  Is it really cheaper to make inadequate provision for storing and disposing of dangerous chemicals.?  The reality is that accidents here could and should be extremely costly to those involved.  The company in this case Free Industries must be made fully accountable for this accident, it should be made to be commercially extremely expensive to cause these incidents which hopefully should limit their number.

There is a worry that there is little coverage of these sort of incidents on a national level, it’s almost as though politicians are scared to raise their protests.  Much of the best coverage is being undertaken by individual journalists and reporter at a local level.  It’s simple to access from the US, but for environmentalists outside it can be difficult to get the full facts,  using a VPN or proxy based in the US could help – try this method.  If you wish to follow environmental stories in Canada, a Canadian proxy may be useful too.

UK Rivers – Which Are Improving

Every few years in the UK, a list is produced by the Environment Agency, it covers all the rivers in England and Wales.  This list helps identify the most improved rivers in the country in environmental terms.   It has to be said that over the last two decades there has been a lot of investment in the health of British rivers and the results are starting to filter through.

Much of the work has been completed along with farmers, the utility companies and of course businesses. The focus is to improve the quality of the rivers specifically of the water and reduce overall pollution.   Another focus designed to improve overall quality is to try and reduce the amount of water taken by businesses and farmers.  This is a key incentive to improve not only quality but the habitat of British rivers.


In the list there are a host of surprises including the River Thames in London, once famously described in the 1950′s as ‘biologically dead’!  Also the River Taff which runs through Cardiff in South Wales and apparently was once filled with coal dust – now they run fishing competitions there.

Other rivers are the Mersey  Basin, once infamous for the high levels of pollution and also the River Stour near Worcester which used to have dyes running in it from all the carpet manufacturers who used to dump their chemicals into it.

Key to cleaning these rivers is obviously reducing the amount of pollutants being dispersed in to them and how much is taken from them.  The Environmental Agency has been reviewing thousands of licenses that allow people to take water from Britain’s rivers and applying much more stringent checks.

The full list can be found on the Environmental Agency and the BBC Website – if you have trouble accessing these sites from outside – then check this out.

James Clint writes on all sorts of blogs, sites on environmental and technical subjects.  You can see examples of his video reports and tutorials here.


Global Warming As The Culprit Of Climate Change

We always hear about how our climate today is experiencing changes, global warming, tsunamis and other major changes. In time, we should not wonder and ask why we are having severe climate change even in a year. Did you know that every wrong doing of the people would result to have global warming? Yes, if you are not yet aware of it, then you must realize that we should be careful on our activities. Halloween kostumer would let you discover dos and don’ts when it comes to our global concerns. It is vital that we have care and concern onto our environment. The effect of global warming is a result of climate change and we should not wait to make it more serious. In fact, we can’t deny that we are not experiencing a slight global warming. The average rise of temperature in the oceans and Earth’s atmosphere is actually a result of global warming. No one wants to have a high average of temperature into the ocean. If this problem might happen, then it could be so pity to the people who are living near the oceans and we all know that the water in ocean would flow to the sea. If instances like high average temperature of the sea would happen then it can be a threat to the people who have a living into the oceans and seas.

The increasing occurrence of high atmosphere temperature in the Earth can actually be a threat to the people and to the living things. Some people are not yet aware on this global warming and it is said to know that they don’t have any little concern to our Mother Earth. There are people who know on the result of global warming but they still do those activities over and over again. Halloween kostumer would let people realize how important to be aware on the future climate change and its associated impacts to the man’s living. These impacts would vary into region-to-region all over the world. So, it means that no particular region into the Earth that will be affected on global warming. One wrong activity done will become a threat to the whole world. No exceptions of region but all over the world will fairly suffer on global warming.

How do you consider that happenings today in the Earth? We usually hear news that some parts of the world are experiencing so much heat. There are some parts also that are experiencing severe rain and flood? Do you think those are not impacts from global warming? We should bear in mind that our Mother Earth should be taken care of and we should protect it from any cause of destruction. Halloween kostumer explains well on how this global warming would affect all the inhabitants in the globe. We might not experience the problem for now but soon we would realize that those happenings are the only result and impact of global warming. Climate change is actually bad news. It is not just a threat to the animals and other living things in the world but to the people as well. Most still seem to believe that global warming are the culprit of climate change we are having today.

Source: – Halloween Kostumer

Picking The Right Roofs For A Brand New House

If you live close to a large river, finding the best brand for a new roof can be a hard part as the hard and wet weather puts some extra demands on the roof. You don’t have any assurance that the roof you would choose is the right one. Of course, no one wants to buy a roof without any quality and durability. They don’t want to spend their money with the wrong brand of product. The tegltag and ståltag are the most popular roof brands in the market. A lot of roof brands distributed and available in the market, but the only thing that you have to make sure is the quality or the performance of the roof. You don’t want to put or replace a roof in your house that only last for 2-3 years. You want to last long and last for how many years before you will replace it again. It would let you spend much money and you did not save your money from it actually. Priser tegltag and ståltag are top rated roofs available and have sold out because of its quality. The people and consumers are actually impressed and amazed on the kind of roof and how it was made. Manufactured roofs with the tegltag and ståltag brands are the leading product in the market when it comes to house materials. 

Priser tegltag and ståltag are roofs that would satisfy every customer. In time that they are seeking for a good quality roof, they easily think about tegltag and ståltag. Selecting good brands of roofs are your best choice. In order to save your money, picking for the right and excellent roof for your house should be done. If you check on the roof brands in the market, you would see lots of kinds of brands. So, you need to check out if which roofs are reliable. With this, you don’t have to think about changing your roof just 2-3 years. If you have picked the right choice then you would not have a headache because you are sure enough that it would last long with a ståltag. When doing wrong renovation of roof because of the wrong choice of roof brand, this will make you frustrated and regret on choosing it. Right roofs for a brand new home must be your goal. But this will not happen if you choose the wrong brand of roof.

Roofs are very helpful to a house. This is an important part of a house. Also, if bad climate occur, you are sure enough that you would be safe inside your house. With the quality and durability of the roof brand such as ståltag, you can be sure that you are sure on your choice. All of us want to have a great house to look at. But it can be a big destruction if your house is new but the roof of your house is old aging. Priser tegltag and ståltag are the top rated brands and best-selling roof in the market. Roofs are important in a house; it would not nice to see if your house is so much nice but there is no roof. No house to be called as nice if there is nothing roof in there.



What Is Pollution – Learn About Pollution

Do you really know what pollution actually is? If the answer to this question is no, then you must learn and understand all about pollution. It is a contamination by other agent or a chemical that renders part of the environment unhealthy for the desired use. These uses as well and very importantly include all ecological requirements and all wildlife to sustain life to its normal or natural form. The pollution will damage the water, air and Earth’s land. It will result the earth’s environment with the materials. The materials will interfere with the quality of life, human health, and the usual or natural functioning of ecosystems. These ecosystems are the physical environments of living organisms. Through browsing nyt tag, you will learn all about pollution. This pollution is the introduction of a contaminant onto environment. It is caused by the commercial waster and industrial, everyday human activities such as burning wood or brænde, building a nyt tag using powertools, agriculture practice and the most well-known is the modes of transportation. These harmful things are the reason why we are living into this kind of environment which is polluted from those reasons. Yes, we might be happy because we are living into this world, a developing world with the rise and gradually building commercials but we forget that this might give at risk to our environment and to us that results to pollution which is something priser nyt tag tries to help fight against.

Pollution has an effect and detrimental effect on any kind of living organisms that survives into this world and in an environment, making it as a virtually not possible to sustain life. The nyt tag is one of the most helpful guides that help people open their eyes to the wrong doings that did that affects our environment that results of pollution. No matter what you do and where you go, there are wastes of pollution. There are different types of pollution. You must have to be aware on those and know what those are as it can be a threat to our lives. We should know that pollution can harm Earth’s environment, living things and the inhabitants in many ways. First, the land pollution, it pollutes the natural Earth’s surface by commercial, agricultural activities, industrial and domestic. The sources or contributors of the land pollution are the mining, construction debris, deforestation, industrial factories, human sewage, overcrowded landfills like nyt tag, littering, gas refineries, oil and antifreeze leaking from various types of machines, chemical and nuclear plants. These can be prevented through tegltag.

Second is the air pollution, it is the accumulation of hazardous substances onto the atmosphere that is a risk to other living matter and human life. The sources of this pollution as main contributors are the acid rain, wildfires, large ships, power plants, combustion of coal, paint fumes, nuclear weapons, aerosol sprays, manufacturing buildings, tobacco smoke, automobile emissions, noise pollution from cars and construction. It must be helped from skifertag. Third is the water pollution that is importantly being solved. Water is one of the most important elements to live and we should assure that this should be protected from harmful things. We must make sure that these kinds of pollution be avoided and be solved.